Largely species of insect organisms have males and females species that mate and reproduce sexually. They can reproduce by lying eggs, while in some insects egg produced inside the female and are born after a short time. And for those species to do reproduction they have to underwent mating period which is different depending on the type of insect’s species. 2
In some insects they have Courtship ritual. Which they perform before they can have mate, while on the other insect there is no sign prior mating, female are often stroked by males, using legs or antennae dance patterns may be performed.2
There is different method that the insect use to attract mating; it can be regarded as mating calls or courtship. Some insects release gland known as pheromones mostly it happens on intraspecific interaction, while intraspecific interaction species release allelochemicals.all this chemical are known as semiochemicals it is used for attraction, repellents and stimulants of male insects species for mating.1
These pheromones are unique for each species to know that there is an insect of the same species which is ready for mating, and it is simple for male species to follow the scent trail. Insect can detect the smell from distance. It was suggested that moth insect can detect the scent close to eleven kilometres. 1
In some species during the arrival at the female territory male secrete the scent for courtship, and it helps females to access the quality and quantity of the male. And most of the scent or pheromones that the male release are the scent from the flowers.
Insect like butterflies use colours and movement for attraction, male butterflies will be attracted by the coloured imitation of females, while other flies also forms a compact swarms that attract the females.1
Other species uses sound for attraction, frogs croak and chucks to attract male frogs for mating and bird sing a song for mating calls. Some insect that use sound for attracting males for mating , are Female grasshoppers, crickets and cicadas males.
Envious, happens in every species, most of the organisms that use signals for mating they have different method to protect their sperms from other male some stay with their mated females to guard them preventing her for mating again. They also extend copulation which prevents other males to mate with her in that period. There is completion for mating in species so they have to prevent other to mate with the species that they mate. some species produce chemicals that plugs the vagina of the female after mating and this give her opportunity for her to mate once while other have genital apparatus that push the arriving sperms back out of the way in the female spermathecae. Because most of the species like to have their own product some have the apparatus that they use to remove the sperms of previous males from females. 1
In general most of the species that cannot undergo courtship they use pheromones and allelochemicals to attract males for mating while other uses sound to indicate that they are ready for mating. So this method of mating call or signals that they use helps the male insect to identify the insect which is ready for mating, different species know signs and smell the scent for attraction of the species of the same group.
1. Entomology [Internet] updated 2004 [cited 2006- 05- 08] Available from: http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/Entomology/InternalAnatomy/reproduction.html
2. Encyclopedia Smithsonian; Mating Insects, [internet] [cited 2006-05-08] Available from: http://www.si.edu/RESOURCE/FAQ/nmnh/buginfo/mating.htm